Our First Native Americans – Introduction – David Haysley


An introduction is in order for this, my first blog.  The name is David Haysley and I am retied Engineer who worked in the Petro- Chemical Industry for 47 years. At 72 years old I am learning about this “blog thing’ and my grand-kids are so proud of me.

What I want to do with the blog is to share information on a topic that I have really gotten involved in since my retirement – North American Native Americans – our first citizens.  So my blog posts will be on these very special neighbors and fellow country men.  Keep in mind, I am a novice still searching for all the information I can absorb.

Given this concept, it seemed appropriate to start “in the Beginning”.  Therefor these first blogs will share information I have discovered on :

  • How did the get into North America
  • When did they get into North America
  • What were they like:

I totally want feedback if you care to do so.  Help, critic, or an other comments (as long long as we keep it clean of course).


Native American Migration into North America

Migration Theories

Scientific evidence indicates that “modern man” emerged from Africa, expanding in all directions, around 75,000 to 100,000 years ago.  Arrival of man in the North America is a widely debatable topic and estimates range from 12,000 to 30,000 years ago.  The initial migration most likely consisted of small groups of hunters, family units or socially identifiable groups.  As time progressed these groups probably became much larger.


Image of the First Citizens on a Hunt

These immigrants are commonly referred to as “Paleo-Americans”.  Paleo is a combining word coming from the Greek word, palaios, meaning ancient.

One issue that needs to be discussed from the beginning is the preference of some of our first citizens to be referred to as “Americans” instead of “Indians”.  We will do our best to honor this preference with our discussions even though most of the research documentation did not.

Having said this, an interesting definition or explanation is for the word “Indian”, the origin of which is attributed to Columbus. The Spanish expression “una gest in Dios” meaning “a people in God” was often shortened to “Indios”. It is believed that Columbus used this word or expression to refer to the people he discovered in the new world. Later to be turned into “Indians”.  (This is Contrary to the concept that Columbus used the term in that he believed he was in India in 1492.  At this date the people of India were called “Hindustan” not “Indies”. So this concept falls apart.)

Evidence suggests that the “Paleo-Americans” first migration into North America occurred near the end of the last glacial period of the Pleistocene Epoch (Ice Age). This period, called the Tarantian Stage of the ice age was believed to have occurred around 10,000 -126,000 years ago towards the end of the Wisconsin Glacial Period.

The Pleistocene Epoch is defined as the time period that began about 1.8 million years ago and lasted until about 10,000 years ago which spans the time period of the world’s  repeated glacial periods.

Glacial Period is thousands of years within Pleistocene Epoch marked by colder temperatures and movement of glaciers covering huge portions of the earth and causing lower sea levels.

Inter -Glacial Period is alternate meteorological state within Pleistocene Epoch having warmer temperatures which reduce glacier coverage and higher sea levels.


Gelasian Stage

1.8 to 2.5

Million Years Ago

Calabrian  Stage

780 thousand to

1.8 Million Years Ago

Ionian Stage

126 thousand to

780 Thousand Years Ago

Tarantian Stage

10 thousand to

126 Thousand Years Ago

North American Glacial Periods for Each Pleistocene Stage
Nebraskan Kansan Illinoian Wisconsin

Pleistocene Epoch

There are three theories that have been developed which are accepted by a majority of archaeologist and anthropologist for this migration into the North America.

  • Beringia Theory
  • Solutrean Theory
  • Coastal Theory


Migration Theories

Enough for Now –

Next Post (Coming Soon) will be on the Beringia Theory of Migration of the Native Americans


  1. David, I’ve follow your 3 postings to this point. All very informative and interesting. I noticed that the chart showing the Coastal Theory has Chile possibly being settled 14.8k year ago; before settling in North Am? Maybe I’m reading the chart wrong.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Your right. Chart was from U of T College of Education (now you know why it was wrong) the dotted line is misleading. Separate Coastal Paths is theorized. For North America (not counting coastal route through Beringia) the path would have been into California Coast Line with earliest evidence around 13,000 years ago – I think this could have been much earlier but due to sea levels getting high it will be hard to prove. For South America the route could have been much more direct as shown on my sketch -• Pacific Coast Model – “Kelp Hi-Way” . I am not delving into South America with the blog now (maybe later) but a quick look into history book does indicate there have been some finding suggesting a 14,800 year ago arrival. Still not as old as Beringia arrival dates of 25,000 to 30,000 years ago.


  2. Hey, Jim , that Kelp Highway sketch I mentioned is in a future post. Sorry. Hope my input on your comment made sense.
    I’m new at this bloggingso please bare with me. By the way, any ideas on how I can expand audience. Try to see if enough interest will warrant more research an maybe a book of some sort.
    Thanks friend.


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